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The city of Istanbul has historically been known by many names from Byzantium, Constantinople, Astana and Istanbul. The largest city in the Turkish Republic and ranks fifth in the world with a population of more than 13 million
Istanbul is a beautiful and ancient city: on the western side of its Bosphorus Strait, with its natural harbor, Haliç or Altın Boynuz, Europe and East Asia or Anatolia begin. It is the only city in the world to span two continents.
Many empires and peoples ruled Istanbul and its ancient history is rich, ancient and rich. It was the capital of the Roman Empire then Byzantine and then Latin and then Ottoman, but it was never fraught with some kind of sanctity with a prominent religious status. It gained religious importance for Christians after the Byzantine Empire embraced this religion and then became the capital of the Islamic Caliphate until 1924.
After the establishment of the Turkish Republic and the transfer of the capital to Ankara, the status of Istanbul was slightly weakened, but it changed in the 1940s. The city underwent radical changes in the creation of squares, roads and roads, such as Taksim Square. From foreign communities to labor districts.
Istanbul has a generally mild climate, although it is located between areas of the surrounding climate and the Mediterranean. The summers are hot and humid and their winters are cold and wet and often snow falls. Istanbul's mornings are foggy almost every year, continuing until noon.
Istanbul is divided into 39 provinces, 27 of which are the actual city, known as the "Greater Istanbul". It consists of three main areas: the ancient historical Istanbul peninsula; the historic provinces of Beyoglu and Bashiktach; the regions of Ascodar and Chalcedon "He said. Since Istanbul has historically been a fusion of cultures and ethnicities, one finds mosques, churches, temples, palaces, castles and historic towers, all of which are attractions for tourists and symbols of the central city.
Istanbul Ataturk International Airport, one of the largest airports in the region, is located on the European side of the city, next to Sabiha Gokgen International Airport, on the Asian side. Maritime navigation is also important in Istanbul, where passenger ferrying forms the basis of daily commute between the two parts of the city via Istanbul Sea Bus Company. There is the European road E80, also known as the "European highway" (Avrupa Otoyolu) linking Turkey to Europe. The Istanbul road network is well developed, organized and continuously expanding. At the railway level, Istanbul is internationally known for its "East East Railway", which begins and ends in Paris and is mentioned in the work of Agatha Christie and Graham Greene. Electric locomotives, suspended railways and underground trains are also popular.
From the Greek era, we find the "Virgo". The Roman architecture is the Cemberlitaş sütunu. The Byzantine style includes the church of Ayia Irene, the great palace of Constantinople, the city style Palazzo del Comune, the Ottoman style The fortress of Anadol Siege, the castle of Rumeli Siege and the Mosque of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari.

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